Wednesday, January 27, 2016

What is a EPS (Earnings Per Share) Mean?

The portion of a company's profit allocated to each outstanding share of common stock. Earnings per share serves as an indicator of a company's profitability.

Calculated as: (Net Income-Dividends on Preferred Stocks)/Average Outstanding Shares

Earnings Per Share (EPS)

When calculating, it is more accurate to use a weighted average number of shares outstanding over the reporting term, because the number of shares outstanding can change over time. However, data sources sometimes simplify the calculation by using the number of shares outstanding at the end of the period.

Calculating EPS:

Earnings per share (basic formula)

\mbox{Earnings Per Share}=\frac{\mbox{Profit- Preferred Dividends}}{\mbox{Weighted Average Common Shares}}

Earnings per share (net income formula)

\mbox{Earnings Per Share}=\frac{\mbox{Net Income - Preferred Dividends}}{\mbox{Average Common Shares}}

Earnings per share (continuing operations formula)

\mbox{Earnings Per Share}=\frac{\mbox{Income from Continuing Operations - Preferred dividends}}{\mbox{Weighted Average Common Shares}}


---Hope this was helpful!
-Nick
______________________________________________________________
About the Author: Nicholas Coriano is a Business Consultant and Planning Guru.  He is a graduate of The University of Connecticut Business School and the John Marshall Law School in Chicago.  He has worked at Merrill Lynch, The New York Stock Exchange and as an Investor Relations Agent & Consultant to Micro Cap Companies and Penny Stocks.  He is the founder and author of The MicroCapCompany.com a blog focused on providing information and advice to Micro Cap Company Executives and Investors.  You can also find him blogging about Social Media, SEO, Web Development and Tech on PushYourRank.com

About MicroCapCompany.COM: MicroCapCompany.COM (The Blog) is a blog focused on providing articles, news and information on the micro cap sector and start-ups.  The Blog is a free service offered by Cervitude™ Investor Relations (a micro cap investor relations firm) and offers compensated research reports and business plan writing services for micro cap companies and penny stocks.  If there is a particular topic you would like to see covered on The Blog, email CervitudeNetwork@gmail.com, If you would like to advertise on The Blog, click here. 

Have tips, advice, comment or suggestions about this article??  Comment below or start a conversation by mentioning us on twitter! -

Sunday, December 27, 2015

What is a P/E (Price-to-Earnings) Ratio?

The Price-to-Earnings Ratio or P/E ratio is a ratio for valuing a company that measures its current share price relative to its per-share earnings.

The price-earnings ratio can be calculated as:

Market Value per Share / Earnings per Share

For example, suppose that a company is currently trading at $43 a share and its earnings over the last 12 months were $1.95 per share. The P/E ratio for the stock could then be calculated as 43/1.95, or 22.05.

EPS is most often derived from the last four quarters. This form of the price-earnings ratio is called trailing P/E, which may be calculated by subtracting a company’s share value at the beginning of the 12-month period from its value at the period’s end, adjusting for stock splits if there have been any. Sometimes, price-earnings can also be taken from analysts’ estimates of earnings expected during the next four quarters. This form of price-earnings is also called projected or forward P/E. A third, less common variation uses the sum of the last two actual quarters and the estimates of the next two quarters.

The price-earnings ratio is also sometimes known as the price multiple or the earnings multiple.

VERSIONS

There are multiple versions of the P/E ratio, depending on whether earnings are projected or realized, and the type of earnings.

"Trailing P/E" uses net income for the most recent 12-month period, divided by the weighted average number of common shares in issue during the period. This is the most common meaning of "P/E" if no other qualifier is specified. Monthly earnings data for individual companies are not available, and in any case usually fluctuate seasonally, so the previous four quarterly earnings reports are used and earnings per share are updated quarterly. Note, each company chooses its own financial year so the timing of updates varies from one to another.

"Trailing P/E from continued operations" uses operating earnings, which exclude earnings from discontinued operations, extraordinary items (e.g. one-off windfalls and write-downs), and accounting changes.

"Forward P/E": Instead of net income, this uses estimated net earnings over next 12 months. Estimates are typically derived as the mean of those published by a select group of analysts (selection criteria are rarely cited).

As an example, if stock A is trading at $24 and the earnings per share for the most recent 12-month period is $3, then stock A has a P/E ratio of 24/3 or 8. Put another way, the purchaser of the stock is paying $8 for every dollar of earnings. Companies with losses (negative earnings) or no profit have an undefined P/E ratio (usually shown as "not applicable" or "N/A"); sometimes, however, a negative P/E ratio may be shown.

Some people mistakenly use the formula market capitalization / net income to calculate the P/E ratio. This formula often gives the same answer as market price / earnings per share, but if new capital has been issued it gives the wrong answer, as market capitalization = market price × current number of shares whereas earnings per share= net income / weighted average number of shares.

Variations on the standard trailing and forward P/E ratios are common. Generally, alternative P/E measures substitute different measures of earnings, such as rolling averages over longer periods of time (to attempt to "smooth" volatile or cyclical earnings, for example), or "corrected" earnings figures that exclude certain extraordinary events or one-off gains or losses. The definitions may not be standardized. For companies that are loss-making, or whose earnings are expected to change dramatically, a "primary" P/E can be used instead, based on the earnings projections made for the next years to which a discount calculation is applied.

---Hope this was helpful!
-Nick
______________________________________________________________
About the Author: Nicholas Coriano is a Business Consultant and Planning Guru.  He is a graduate of The University of Connecticut Business School and the John Marshall Law School in Chicago.  He has worked at Merrill Lynch, The New York Stock Exchange and as an Investor Relations Agent & Consultant to Micro Cap Companies and Penny Stocks.  He is the founder and author of The MicroCapCompany.com a blog focused on providing information and advice to Micro Cap Company Executives and Investors.  You can also find him blogging about Social Media, SEO, Web Development and Tech on PushYourRank.com

About MicroCapCompany.COM: MicroCapCompany.COM (The Blog) is a blog focused on providing articles, news and information on the micro cap sector and start-ups.  The Blog is a free service offered by Cervitude™ Investor Relations (a micro cap investor relations firm) and offers compensated research reports and business plan writing services for micro cap companies and penny stocks.  If there is a particular topic you would like to see covered on The Blog, email CervitudeNetwork@gmail.com, If you would like to advertise on The Blog, click here. 

Have tips, advice, comment or suggestions about this article??  Comment below or start a conversation by mentioning us on twitter! -

Friday, November 27, 2015

What does Market Capitalization Mean? And How Can I Calculate it for a Public Company?

Market capitalization (market cap) is the total market value of the shares outstanding of a publicly traded company; it is equal to the share price times the number of shares outstanding. As outstanding stock is bought and sold in public markets, capitalization could be used as a proxy for the public opinion of a company's net worth and is a determining factor in some forms of stock valuation. The investment community uses this figure to determine a company's size, as opposed to sales or total asset figures.

The total capitalization of stock markets or economic regions may be compared to other economic indicators. The total market capitalization of all publicly traded companies in the world was US$51.2 trillion in January 2007 and rose as high as US$57.5 trillion in May 2008 before dropping below US$50 trillion in August 2008 and slightly above US$40 trillion in September 2008.[1]

Calculation
Market cap is given by the formula MC = N xP, where MC is the market capitalization, N is the number of shares outstanding, and P is the current price per share.
For example, if some company has 4 million shares outstanding and the closing price per share is $20, its market cap is then $80 million. If the closing price per share rises to $21, the market cap becomes $84 million. If it drops to $19 per share, the market cap falls to $76 million.

Market Cap Terms
Traditionally, companies were divided into large-cap, mid-cap, and small-cap. The terms mega-cap and micro-cap have also since come into common use, and nano-cap is sometimes heard. Different numbers are used by different indexes; there is no official definition of, or full consensus agreement about, the exact cutoff values. The cutoffs may be defined as percentiles rather than in nominal dollars. The definitions expressed in nominal dollars need to be adjusted over decades due to inflation, population change, and overall market valuation (for example, $1 billion was a large market cap in 1950, but it is not very large now), and market caps are likely to be different country to country.

According to Investopedia ….[2]
What is 'Market Capitalization'
The total dollar market value of all of a company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is calculated by multiplying a company's shares outstanding by the current market price of one share. The investment community uses this figure to determine a company's size, as opposed to sales or total asset figures.

Frequently referred to as "market cap."

BREAKING DOWN 'Market Capitalization'

If a company has 35 million shares outstanding, each with a market value of $100, the company's market capitalization is $3.5 billion (35,000,000 x $100 per share).
Company size is a basic determinant of asset allocation and risk-return parameters for stocks and stock mutual funds. The term should not be confused with a company's "capitalization," which is a financial statement term that refers to the sum of a company's shareholders' equity plus long-term debt.

The stocks of large, medium and small companies are referred to as large-cap, mid-cap, and small-cap, respectively. Investment professionals differ on their exact definitions, but the current approximate categories of market capitalization are:

Large Cap: $10 billion plus and include the companies with the largest market capitalization.
Mid Cap: $2 billion to $10 billion
Small Cap: Less than $2 billion
Micro Cap: Less Than $500 Million

---Hope this was helpful!
-Nick
______________________________________________________________
About the Author: Nicholas Coriano is a Business Consultant and Planning Guru.  He is a graduate of The University of Connecticut Business School and the John Marshall Law School in Chicago.  He has worked at Merrill Lynch, The New York Stock Exchange and as an Investor Relations Agent & Consultant to Micro Cap Companies and Penny Stocks.  He is the founder and author of The MicroCapCompany.com a blog focused on providing information and advice to Micro Cap Company Executives and Investors.  You can also find him blogging about Social Media, SEO, Web Development and Tech on PushYourRank.com

About MicroCapCompany.COM: MicroCapCompany.COM (The Blog) is a blog focused on providing articles, news and information on the micro cap sector and start-ups.  The Blog is a free service offered by Cervitude™ Investor Relations (a micro cap investor relations firm) and offers compensated research reports and business plan writing services for micro cap companies and penny stocks.  If there is a particular topic you would like to see covered on The Blog, email CervitudeNetwork@gmail.com, If you would like to advertise on The Blog, click here. 

Have tips, advice, comment or suggestions about this article??  Comment below or start a conversation by mentioning us on twitter! -




[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_capitalization
[2] http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/marketcapitalization.asp

Tuesday, October 27, 2015

What is Par Value? or No Par Value? when issuing stock for a corporation...

Historically, par value[1] (as opposed to non-par value[2]) was the initial sale price of the stock. In the early days of contracting, this was the only way to show someone how much the investment was worth. If someone did not pay the par value, the stock was called “watered”. You can pay more then par value, but you can’t pay less (paying less is called watering down the stock).

There are certain legal ramifications of not paying for the stock. A shareholder is liable to corporate creditors to the extent his stock has not been paid for. Hanewald v. Bryan’s Inc. 429 N.W.2d 414,1988 N.D. In the latter case the defendants took out a $55k loan from the bank and signed a $5k promise note for the purchase of a business which went out of business 5 months later. The court held that because they initially received stock in the corporation they formed for this business, and they did not pay any cash or value for the shares, they could not enjoy the benefit of corporate limited liability since they had not purchased the protection. The only monies the owners placed in the business was $10k in the form of a loan. The “watered stock liability” doctrine will hold a shareholder liable for not paying the par value of the stock. The model corporations act allows for a promise to perform services in consideration for common stock. Some states explicitly state that you must pay a cash amount for stock or services must be performed before stock can be exchanged for their value. For example in IL you can not issue a promissory not or services to be performed in exchange for stock. The Model Corporations Act allows for both.

When relating to stocks;
Par value stock has no relation to market value and, as a concept, is somewhat archaic. The par value of a stock was the share price upon initial offering; the issuing company promised not to issue further shares below par value, so investors could be confident that no one else was receiving a more favorable issue price. Thus, par value is a nominal value of a security which is determined by an issuing company as a minimum price. This was far more important in unregulated equity markets than in the regulated markets that exist today.

Par value also has bookkeeping purposes. It allows the company to put a de minimis value for the stock on the company’s financial statement.

Many common stocks issued today do not have par values; those that do (usually only in jurisdictions where par values are required by law) have extremely low par values (often the smallest unit of currency in circulation), for example a penny par value on a stock issued at USD$25/share. Most states do not allow a company to issue stock below par value.
Even in jurisdictions that permit the issue of stock with no par value, the par value of a stock may affect its tax treatment. For example, Delaware permits the issue of stock either with or without a par value, but by choosing to assign a par value, a corporation may significantly reduce its franchise tax liability.

No-par stocks have “no par value” printed on their certificates. Instead of par value, some U.S. states allow no-par stocks to have a stated value, set by the board of directors of the corporation, which serves the same purpose as par value in setting the minimum legal capital that the corporation must have after paying any dividends or buying back its stock. Preferred stock par value remains relevant, and tends to reflect issue price. Dividends on preferred stocks are calculated as a percentage of par value.

Also, par value still matters for a callable common stock: the call price is usually either par value or a small fixed percentage over par value.

In the United States, it is legal for a corporation to issue “watered” shares below par value.
However, the purchasers of “watered” shares incur an accounting liability to the corporation for the difference between the par value and the price they paid. Today, in many jurisdictions, par values are no longer required for common stocks.

Hope this was helpful,

-The MicroCapCompany Team
Follow Nicholas Coriano on Twitter

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About the Author: Nicholas Coriano is a Business Consultant and Planning Guru.  He is a graduate of The University of Connecticut Business School and the John Marshall Law School in Chicago.  He has worked at Merrill Lynch, The New York Stock Exchange and as an Investor Relations Agent & Consultant to Micro Cap Companies and Penny Stocks.  He is the founder and author of The MicroCapCompany.com a blog focused on providing information and advice to Micro Cap Company Executives and Investors.  You can also find him blogging about Social Media, SEO, Web Development and Tech on PushYourRank.com

About MicroCapCompany.COM: MicroCapCompany.COM (The Blog) is a blog focused on providing articles, news and information on the micro cap sector and start-ups.  The Blog is a free service offered by Cervitude™ Investor Relations (a micro cap investor relations firm) and offers compensated research reports and business plan writing services for micro cap companies and penny stocks.  If there is a particular topic you would like to see covered on The Blog, email CervitudeNetwork@gmail.com, If you would like to advertise on The Blog, click here

[1] Par value, in finance and accounting, means stated value or face value. From this comes the expressions at par (at the par value), over par (over par value) and under par (under par value).
[2] Stock that is issued without the specification of a par value indicated in the company's articles of incorporation or on the stock certificate itself.